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You can view the entire text of Notes to accounts of the company for the latest year

BSE: 500570ISIN: INE155A01022INDUSTRY: Auto - LCVs/HCVs

BSE   ` 163.00   Open: 162.30   Today's Range 159.20
163.45
+1.90 (+ 1.17 %) Prev Close: 161.10 52 Week Range 141.90
376.80
Year End :2018-03 

Note:

(1) The investment in the Company's subsidiaries Tata Technologies Ltd, TAL Manufacturing Solutions Ltd and Tata Motors Insurance Broking and Advisory Services Ltd and associate Tata Hitachi Construction Machinery Company Private Ltd are classified as "Held for Sale" as they meet the criteria laid out under Ind AS 105.

(2) The Company has given a letter of comfort to HDFC bank amounting to ' 1 crore against Working Capital Facility to Tata Motors Insurance Broking and Advisory Services Ltd (TMIBASL). Also the Company has given an undertaking to HDFC bank that it will not dilute its stake below 51% in TMIBASL during the tenor of the loan.

- less than RS, 50,000/-

(h) The entitlements to 494,352 Ordinary shares of RS, 2 each (as at March 31, 2017 : 494,618 Ordinary shares of RS, 2 each) and

233,739 RS,A' Ordinary shares of RS, 2 each (as at March 31, 2017: 233,819 'A' Ordinary shares of RS, 2 each) are subject matter of

various suits filed in the courts / forums by third parties for which final order is awaited and hence kept in abeyance.

(i) Rights, preferences and restrictions attached to shares:

(i) Ordinary shares and 'A' Ordinary shares both of ' 2 each :

- The Company has two classes of shares - the Ordinary shares and the 'A' Ordinary shares both of ' 2 each (together referred to as shares). In respect of every Ordinary share (whether fully or partly paid), voting rights shall be in the same proportion as the capital paid up on such Ordinary share bears to the total paid up Ordinary share capital of the Company. In case of every 'A' Ordinary share, if any resolution is put to vote on a poll or by postal ballot at any general meeting of shareholders, the holder shall be entitled to one vote for every ten 'A' Ordinary shares held as per the terms of its issue and if a resolution is put to vote on a show of hands, the holder of 'A' Ordinary shares shall be entitled to the same number of votes as available to holders of Ordinary shares.

- The dividend proposed by the Board of Directors is subject to the approval of the shareholders in the ensuing Annual General Meeting. Further, the Board of Directors may also declare an interim dividend. The holders of 'A' Ordinary shares shall be entitled to receive dividend for each financial year at five percentage point more than the aggregate rate of dividend declared on Ordinary shares for that financial year.

- In the event of liquidation, the shareholders are eligible to receive the remaining assets of the Company after distribution of all preferential amounts, in proportion to their shareholdings.

(ii) American Depository Shares (ADSs) and Global Depository Shares (GDSs) :

- Each ADS and GDS underlying the ADR and GDR respectively represents five Ordinary shares of ' 2 each. A holder of ADS and GDS is not entitled to attend or vote at shareholders meetings. An ADS holder is entitled to issue voting instructions to the Depository with respect to the Ordinary shares represented by ADSs only in accordance with the provisions of the Company's ADSs deposit agreement and Indian Law. The depository for the ADSs and GDSs shall exercise voting rights in respect of the deposited shares by issue of an appropriate proxy or power of attorney in terms of the respective deposit agreements.

- Shares issued upon conversion of ADSs and GDSs will rank pari passu with the existing Ordinary shares of ' 2 each in all respects including entitlement of the dividend declared.

(B) Notes to reserves

a) Capital redemption reserve

The indian Companies Act, 2013 (the "Companies Act") requires that where a company purchases its own shares out of free reserves or securities premium account, a sum equal to the nominal value of the shares so purchased shall be transferred to a capital redemption reserve account and details of such transfer shall be disclosed in the balance sheet. The capital redemption reserve account may be applied by the company, in paying up unissued shares of the company to be issued to shareholders of the company as fully paid bonus shares. Tata Motors Limited established this reserve pursuant to the redemption of preference shares issued in earlier years.

b) Debenture redemption reserve

The Companies Act requires that where a company issues debentures, it shall create a debenture redemption reserve out of profits of the company available for payment of dividend. The company is required to maintain a Debenture Redemption Reserve of 25% of the value of debentures issued, either by a public issue or on a private placement basis. The amounts credited to the debenture redemption reserve may not be utilized by the company except to redeem debentures.

c) Securities premium

The amount received in excess of face value of the equity shares is recognized in Securities Premium Account.

d) Retained earnings

Retained earnings are the profits that the Company has earned till date.

e) Dividends

For the year ended March 31, 2018 and 2017, considering the losses in the Tata Motors Limited (Standalone), no dividend is permitted to be paid to the Members, as per the Companies Act, 2013 and the Rules framed there under.

I. Information regarding long-term borrowings

(i) Nature of security (on loans including interest accrued thereon) :

(a) Rated, Listed, Secured, 9.95% Coupon, Non-Convertible Debentures amounting to RS, 200 crores included within Long-term borrowings in note 23 and 10.25% Coupon, Non-Convertible Debentures amounting to RS, 500 crores included within Current maturities of Long-term borrowings in note 26 are secured by a pari passu charge by way of an English mortgage of the Company's freehold land together with immovable properties, plant and machinery and other movable assets (excluding stock and book debts) situated at Sanand in the State of Gujarat.

(b) The term loan of RS, 584.82 crores (recorded in books at RS, 133.39 crores) is due for repayment from the quarter ending March 31, 2033 to quarter ending March 31, 2038, along with simple interest at the rate of 0.10% p.a. The loan is secured by a second and subservient charge (creation of charge is under process) over Company's freehold land together with immovable properties, plant and machinery and other movable assets (excluding stock and book debts) situated at Sanand plant in the State of Gujarat.

The term loan of RS, 35.92 crores (recorded in books at RS, 11.36 crores) is due for repayment from the quarter ending June 30, 2030 to March 31, 2033, along with a simple interest of 0.01% p.a. The loan is secured by bank guarantee for the due performance of the conditions as per the terms of the agreement.

( c) Term loan of RS, 635.45 is taken by joint operation Fiat india Automobiles Private Ltd which is due for repayment from December 2017 to May 2023. The loan is secured by first charge over fixed assets procured from its loan/jeep project.

(iv) The Buyer's line of credit from banks amounting to RS, 1,500 crores is repayable within a maximum period of four years from the drawdown dates. All the repayments are due from quarter ending September 30, 2018 to March 31, 2021. The Buyer's line of credit of RS, 500 crores classified under other financial liabilities-current being maturity before March 31, 2019.

II. Information regarding short-term borrowings

Loans, cash credits, overdrafts and buyers line of credit from banks are secured by hypothecation of existing current assets of the Company viz. stock of raw materials, stock in process, semi-finished goods, stores and spares not relating to plant and machinery (consumable stores and spares), bills receivable and book debts including receivable from hire purchase / leasing and all other moveable current assets except cash and bank balances, loans and advances of the Company both present and future.

III. Collateral

Inventory, trade receivables, other financial assets, property, plant and equipment with a carrying amount of RS, 4,415.30 crores and RS, 4,460.45 crores are pledged as collateral/security against the borrowings as at March 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.

Note:

Deferred revenue includes RS, 187.67 crores as at March 31, 2018 ( RS, 227.92 crores as at March 31, 2017) grants relating to property, plant and equipment related to duty saved on import of capital goods and spares under the Export Promotion Capital Goods (EPCG) scheme. Under such scheme, the Company is committed to export prescribed times of the duty saved on import of capital goods over a specified period of time. in case such commitments are not met, the Company would be required to pay the duty saved along with interest to the regulatory authorities.

(2) Consequent to the introduction of Goods and Service Tax (GST) with effect from July 1, 2017, Central Excise, Value Added Tax (VAT), etc have been replaced by GST. In accordance with Ind AS 18 on Revenue and Schedule III of the Companies Act, 2013, GST, GST Compensation Cess, etc. are not included in Revenue from Operations for applicable periods. In view of the aforesaid restructuring of indirect taxes, Sale of products for the year ended March 31, 2018 is not comparable with year ended March 31, 2017. Following additional information is being provided to facilitate such comparison:

1. a) Exceptional debit of RS, 962.98 crores is related to provision for impairment of certain capital work-in-progress and intangibles

under development. The company reviewed product development programs and capital work-in-progrees and consequently provided for impairment during the year ended March 31, 2018.

b) Exceptional debit of RS, 147.93 crores for the year ended March 31, 2017, relates to provision for inventory of BS iii vehicles as at March 31, 2017. This does not include higher level of customer discounts and variable marketing expenses in March 2017, to support higher level of retail sales, which have been netted off against 'Revenue from operations.

2. Commitments and contingencies

in the ordinary course of business, the Company faces claims and assertions by various parties. The Company assesses such claims and assertions and monitors the legal environment on an ongoing basis, with the assistance of external legal counsel, wherever necessary. The Company records a liability for any claims where a potential loss is probable and capable of being estimated and discloses such matters in its financial statements, if material. For potential losses that are considered possible, but not probable, the Company provides disclosure in the financial statements but does not record a liability in its accounts unless the loss becomes probable.

The following is a description of claims and assertions where a potential loss is possible, but not probable. The Company believes that none of the contingencies described below would have a material adverse effect on the Company's financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.

Litigation

The Company is involved in legal proceedings, both as plaintiff and as defendant. There are claims which the Company does not believe to be of material nature, other than those described below.

Income Tax

The Company has ongoing disputes with income tax authorities relating to tax treatment of certain items. These mainly include disallowed expenses, the tax treatment of certain expenses claimed by the Company as deductions and the computation of, or eligibility of, the Company's use of certain tax incentives or allowances.

Most of these disputes and/or disallowances, being repetitive in nature, have been raised by the income tax authorities consistently in most of the years.

The Company has a right of appeal to the Commissioner of income Tax (Appeals), or CiT (A), the Dispute Resolution Panel, or DRP, and to the income Tax Appellate Tribunal, or iTAT, against adverse decisions by the assessing officer, DRP or CiT (A), as applicable. The income tax authorities have similar rights of appeal to the iTAT against adverse decisions by the CiT (A) or DRP. The Company has a further right of appeal to the Bombay High Court or the Supreme Court against adverse decisions by the appellate authorities for matters involving substantial question of law. The income tax authorities have similar rights of appeal.

As at March 31, 2018, there are matters and/or disputes pending in appeal amounting to RS, 60.89 crores (RS, 148.60 crores as at March 31, 2017).

Customs, Excise Duty and Service Tax

As at March 31, 2018, there are pending litigation for various matters relating to customs, excise duty and service taxes involving demands, including interest and penalties, of RS, 1,491.36 crores (RS, 1,425.12 crores as at March 31, 2017). These demands challenged the basis of valuation of the Company's products and denied the Company's claims of Central Value Added Tax, or CENVAT credit on inputs. The details of the demands for more than RS, 20 crores are as follows:

The Excise Authorities have raised a demand for RS, 90.72 crores as at March 31, 2018 (RS, 90.72 crores as at March 31, 2017), on account of alleged undervaluation's of ex-factory discounts given by Company on passenger vehicles through invoices. The matter is being contested by the Company before the Bombay High Court.

As at March 31, 2018, the Excise Authorities have raised a demand and penalty of ' 239.95 crores, (' 218.23 crores as at March 31, 2017), due to the classification of certain chassis (as dumpers instead of goods transport vehicles) which were sent to automotive body builders by the Company, which the Excise Authorities claim requires the payment of the National Calamity Contingent Duty, or

NCCD. The Company has obtained a technical expert certificate on the classification. The appeal is pending before the Custom Excise & Service Tax Appellate Tribunal.

The Excise Authorities had denied the Company's claim of a CENVAT credit of RS, 36.03 crores as at March 31, 2018 (RS, 24.96 crores as at March 31, 2017) claimed by the Company from financial year 1992 to 2013, on technical grounds. The matter is being contested by the Company before the appellate authorities.

As at March 31, 2018, the Excise Authorities had levied penalties and interest amounting to RS, 679.88 crores (RS, 679.88 crores as at March 31, 2017) with respect to CENVAT credit claimed by the Company from March 2010 to November 2012, on inputs, stating that vehicles manufactured at Uttarakhand plant are "Exempted Products" and the Company may not claim a CENVAT credit on these vehicles. The Company has challenged this demand as NCCD and the automobile cess is assessed on those vehicles, which are "duties of excise". Therefore, the Company asserts that these vehicles are not "Exempted Products". The matter is being contested by the Company before the appellate authorities.

As at March 31, 2018, the Excise Authorities have raised a demand amounting to RS, 29.54 crores (RS, 29.54 crores as at March 31, 2017) on pre-delivery inspection charges and free after-sales service charges incurred by dealers on Company's products on the alleged grounds that the pre-delivery inspection charges and free after-sales services are provided by the dealer on behalf of the Company and should be included in excisable value of the vehicle. The case is pending before Tribunal.

As at March 31, 2018, the Exicse Authorities have confirmed demand & penalty totalling to RS, 90.88 crores (RS, Nil as at March 31, 2017) towards vehicles allegedly sold below cost of production with an intention to penetrate the market. The matter is being contested by the Company before appellate authorities.

As at March 31, 2018, the Exicse Authorities have filed Appeal before appellate authority against the Order of adjudicating authority allowing Cenvat credit of service tax of RS, 36.15 crores (RS, 36.15 crores as at March 31, 2017) availed on consulting engineers services.

Sales Tax

The total sales tax demands (including interest and penalty), that are being contested by the Company amount to RS, 949.54 crores as at March 31, 2018 (RS, 965.80 crores as at March 31, 2017). The details of the demands for more than RS, 20 crores are as follows:

The Sales Tax Authorities have raised demand of RS, 269.38 crores as at March 31, 2018 (RS, 208.59 crores as at March 31, 2017) towards rejection of certain statutory forms for concessional lower/nil tax rate (Form F and Form C) on technical grounds such as late submission, single form issued against different months / quarters dispatches / sales, etc. and denial of exemption from tax in absence of proof of export for certain years. The Company has contended that the benefit cannot be denied on technicalities, which are being complied with. The matter is pending at various levels.

The Sales Tax Authorities have denied input tax credit and levied interest and penalty thereon due to varied reasons aggregating to ' 435.96 crores as at March 31, 2018 (RS, 305.46 crores as at March 31, 2017). The reasons for disallowing credit was mainly due to Taxes not paid by Vendors, incorrect method of calculation of set off as per the department, alleging suppression of sales as per the department etc. The matter is contested in appeal.

Sales tax demand aggregating RS, 95.75 crores as at March 31, 2018 (RS, Nil as at March 31, 2017) has been raised by Sales Tax Authorities for non submission of Maharashtra Trial Balance. This is relating to VAT assessment for the financial year 2010 to 2013. The matter is contested in appeal.

The Sales Tax Authorities have raised demand for Entry Tax liability at various states amounting to RS, 23.92 crores as at March 31, 2018 (RS, Nil as at March 31, 2017) . The company is contesting this issue.

Other Taxes and Dues

Other amounts for which the Company may contingently be liable aggregate to RS, 205.19 crores as at March 31, 2018 (RS, 221.14 crores as at March 31, 2017). Following are the cases involving more than RS, 20 crores:

The municipal authorities in certain states levy octroi duty (a local indirect tax) on goods brought inside the municipal limits at rates based on the classification of goods. Demands aggregating RS, 61.65 crores as at March 31, 2018 (RS, 61.65 crores as at March 31, 2017) had been raised demanding higher octroi duties on account of classification disputes relating to components purchased for the manufacture of vehicles and retrospective increase in octroi rates relating to past periods. The dispute relating to classification is presently pending before the Bombay High Court and the other dispute is pending before the Supreme Court.

As at March 31, 2018, property tax amounting to RS, 56.84 crores (RS, 53.70 crores as at March 31, 2017) has been demanded by the local municipal authorities in respect of vacant land of the Company in the plants in Pimpri, Chinchwad and Chikhali. The Company has filed Special Leave Petition (SLP) before the Supreme Court against an unfavorable decision of the Bombay High Court. The Supreme Court has disposed of the SLP and remanded the matter back to the local municipal corporation for fresh adjudication.

As at March 31, 2018, Sales tax / VAT amounting to RS, 30.54 crores (RS, 29.95 crores as at March 31, 2017) has been demanded by local authorities on dealers in respect of spare parts used for carrying out warranty repairs. The dispute is pending before the Supreme Court.

Commitments

The Company has entered into various contracts with vendors and contractors for the acquisition of plant and machinery, equipment and various civil contracts of a capital nature amounting to RS, 2,096.64 crores at March 31, 2018 (RS, 1,606.45 crores as at March 31, 2017), which are yet to be executed.

The Company has entered into various contracts with vendors and contractors for the acquisition of intangible assets of a capital nature amounting to RS, 466.01 crores as at March 31, 2018, (RS, 420.06 crores as at March 31, 2017), which are yet to be executed.

* 'A' Ordinary Shareholders are entitled to receive dividend @ 5% points more than the aggregate rate of dividend determined by the Company on Ordinary Shares for the financial year.

# Since there is a loss for year ended March 31, 2018 and 2017 potential equity shares are not considered as dilutive and hence Diluted EPS is same as Basic EPS.

3. Capital Management

The Company's capital management is intended to create value for shareholders by facilitating the meeting of long-term and short-term goals of the Company.

The Company determines the amount of capital required on the basis of annual operating plans and long-term product and other strategic investment plans. The funding requirements are met through equity, non-convertible debentures, senior notes and other long-term/short-term borrowings. The Company's policy is aimed at combination of short-term and long-term borrowings.

The Company monitors the capital structure on the basis of total debt to equity ratio and maturity profile of the overall debt portfolio of the Company.

Total borrowings includes all long and short-term borrowings as disclosed in notes 23, 24 and 26 (a) to the financial statements. Equity comprises all components excluding (profit)/loss on cash flow hedges.

The following table summarizes the capital of the Company:

in rrnroc^

The following table provides an analysis of financial instruments that are measured subsequent to initial recognition at fair value, grouped into Level 1 to Level 3, as described below.

Quoted prices in an active market (Level 1): This level of hierarchy includes financial assets that are measured by reference to quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities. This category consists of quoted equity shares, quoted corporate debt instruments and mutual fund investments.

Valuation techniques with observable inputs (Level 2): This level of hierarchy includes financial assets and liabilities, measured using inputs other than quoted prices included within Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly (i.e; as prices) or indirectly (i.e; derived from prices). This level of hierarchy include Company's over-the-counter (OTC) derivative contracts.

Valuation techniques with significant unobservable inputs (Level 3): This level of hierarchy includes financial assets and liabilities measured using inputs that are not based on observable market data (unobservable inputs). Fair values are determined in whole or in part, using a valuation model based on assumptions that are neither supported by prices from observable current market transactions in the same instrument nor are they based on available market data.

There has been no transfers between level 1, level 2 and level 3 for the year ended March 31, 2018 and 2017.

Costs of certain unquoted equity instruments has been considered as an appropriate estimate of fair value because of a wide range of possible fair value measurements and cost represents the best estimate of fair value within that range. These investments in equity instruments are not held for trading. Instead, they are held for medium or long term strategic purpose. Upon the application of Ind AS 109, the Company has chosen to designate these investments in equity instruments at FVTOCI as the directors believes this provides a more meaningful presentation for medium or long term strategic investments, than reflecting changes in fair value immediately in profit or loss.

Derivatives are fair valued using market observable rates and published prices together with forecast cash flow information where applicable.

The short-term financial assets and liabilities are stated at amortized cost which is approximately equal to their fair value.

The fair value of borrowings which have a quoted market price in an active market is based on its market price and for other borrowings the fair value is estimated by discounting expected future cash flows, using a discount rate equivalent to the risk-free rate of return, adjusted for the credit spread considered by the lenders for instruments of similar maturity.

Management uses its best judgment in estimating the fair value of its financial instruments. However, there are inherent limitations in any estimation technique. Therefore, substantially for all financial instruments, the fair value estimates presented above are not necessarily indicative of all the amounts that the Company could have realized or paid in sale transactions as of respective dates. As such, the fair value of the financial instruments subsequent to the respective reporting dates may be different from the amounts reported at each year end.

(c) Financial risk management

in the course of its business, the Company is exposed primarily to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, interest rates, equity prices, liquidity and credit risk, which may adversely impact the fair value of its financial instruments.

The Company has a risk management policy which not only covers the foreign exchange risks but also other risks associated with the financial assets and liabilities such as interest rate risks and credit risks. The risk management policy is approved by the board of directors. The risk management framework aims to:

- Create a stable business planning environment by reducing the impact of currency and interest rate fluctuations on the Company's business plan.

- Achieve greater predictability to earnings by determining the financial value of the expected earnings in advance.

(i) Market risk

Market risk is the risk of any loss in future earnings, in realizable fair values or in future cash flows that may result from a change in the price of a financial instrument. The value of a financial instrument may change as a result of changes in the interest rates, foreign currency exchange rates, equity price fluctuations, liquidity and other market changes. Future specific market movements cannot be normally predicted with reasonable accuracy.

(i) (a) Foreign currency exchange rate risk:

The fluctuation in foreign currency exchange rates may have potential impact on the income statement and equity, where any transaction references more than one currency or where assets/liabilities are denominated in a currency other than the functional currency.

Considering the countries and economic environment in which the Company operates, its operations are subject to risks arising from fluctuations in exchange rates in those countries. The risks primarily relate to fluctuations in U.S. dollar, Euro and Thai Baht against the respective functional currencies of the Company.

The Company, as per its risk management policy, uses foreign exchange and other derivative instruments primarily to hedge foreign exchange and interest rate exposure. Any weakening of the functional currency may impact the Company's cost of exports and cost of borrowings and consequently may increase the cost of financing the Company's capital expenditures.

The Company evaluates the impact of foreign exchange rate fluctuations by assessing its exposure to exchange rate risks. it hedges a part of these risks by using derivative financial instruments in accordance with its risk management policies.

The foreign exchange rate sensitivity is calculated for each currency by aggregation of the net foreign exchange rate exposure of a currency and a simultaneous parallel foreign exchange rates shift in the foreign exchange rates of each currency by 10%.

The exposure as indicated below is mitigated by some of the derivative contracts entered into by the Company as disclosed in (iv) derivative financial instruments and risk management below.

The following table sets forth information relating to foreign currency exposure (other than risk arising from derivatives disclosed at clause (iv) below) as of March 31, 2018:

1 Others mainly include currencies such as the Russian ruble, Japanese yen, Swiss franc, Australian dollars, South African rand, Thai baht and Korean won.

10% appreciation/depreciation of the respective foreign currencies with respect to functional currency of the Company would result in decrease/increase in the Company's net profit/(loss) before tax by approximately RS, 86.10 crores and RS, 689.03 crores for financial assets and financial liabilities respectively for the year ended March 31,

2018.

2 Others mainly include currencies such as the Russian rouble, Japanese yen, Swiss franc, Australian dollars, South African rand, Thai baht and Korean won.

10% appreciation/depreciation of the respective foreign currencies with respect to functional currency of the Company would result in decrease/increase in the Company's net profit/(loss) before tax by approximately RS, 55.23 crores and RS, 653.42 crores for financial assets and financial liabilities, respectively for the year ended March 31, 2017.

(Note: The impact is indicated on the profit/(loss) before tax basis.)

(i) (b) Interest rate risk

Interest rate risk is measured by using the cash flow sensitivity for changes in variable interest rates. Any movement in the reference rates could have an impact on the Company's cash flows as well as costs.

The Company is subject to variable interest rates on some of its interest bearing liabilities. The Company's interest rate exposure is mainly related to debt obligations. The Company also uses a mix of interest rate sensitive financial instruments to manage the liquidity and fund requirements for its day to day operations like short term loans.

As at March 31, 2018 and 2017, financial liability of RS, 3,239.35 crores and RS, 3,418.97 crores, respectively, was subject to variable interest rates. Increase/decrease of 100 basis points in interest rates at the balance sheet date would result in decrease/increase in profit/(loss) before tax of RS,32.39 crores and RS, 34.19 crores for the year ended March 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.

The model assumes that interest rate changes are instantaneous parallel shifts in the yield curve. Although some assets and liabilities may have similar maturities or periods to re-pricing, these may not react correspondingly to changes in market interest rates. Also, the interest rates on some types of assets and liabilities may fluctuate with changes in market interest rates, while interest rates on other types of assets may change with a lag.

The risk estimates provided assume a parallel shift of 100 basis points interest rate across all yield curves. This calculation also assumes that the change occurs at the balance sheet date and has been calculated based on risk exposures outstanding as at that date. The period end balances are not necessarily representative of the average debt outstanding during the period.

This analysis assumes that all other variables, in particular foreign currency rates, remain constant.

(Note: The impact is indicated on the profit/(loss) before tax basis).

(i) ( c) Equity Price risk

Equity Price Risk is related to the change in market reference price of the investments in equity securities.

The fair value of some of the Company's investments measured at fair value through other comprehensive income exposes the Company to equity price risks. These investments are subject to changes in the market price of securities. The fair value of Company's investment in quoted equity securities as of March 31, 2018 and 2017 was RS, 303.84 crores and RS, 218.18 crores, respectively. A 10% change in equity price as of March 31, 2018 and 2017 would result in an impact of RS,30.38 crores and RS, 21.82 crores, respectively.

(Note: The impact is indicated on equity before consequential tax impact, if any).

(ii) Credit risk

Credit risk is the risk of financial loss arising from counterparty failure to repay or service debt according to the contractual terms or obligations. Credit risk encompasses both the direct risk of default and the risk of deterioration of creditworthiness as well as concentration risks.

Financial instruments that are subject to concentrations of credit risk, principally consist of investments classified as fair value through profit and loss, trade receivables, loans and advances and derivative financial instruments. None of the financial instruments of the Company result in material concentrations of credit risks.

Exposure to credit risk

The carrying amount of financial assets represents the maximum credit exposure. The maximum exposure to credit risk was RS, 7,819.91 crores and RS, 6,069.96 crores as at March 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively, being the total of the carrying amount of balances with banks, short term deposits with banks, trade receivables, finance receivables, margin money and other financial assets excluding equity investments.

Financial assets that are neither past due nor impaired

None of the Company's cash equivalents, including time deposits with banks, are past due or impaired. Regarding trade receivables and other receivables, and other loans or receivables that are neither impaired nor past due, there were no indications as at March 31, 2018, that defaults in payment obligations will occur.

Credit quality of financial assets and impairment loss

The ageing of trade receivables as of balance sheet date is given below. The age analysis has been considered from the due date.

1 Trade receivables overdue more than six months include RS, 462.22 crores as at March 31, 2018 (RS, 212.29 crores as at March 31, 2017) outstanding from state government organizations in india, which are considered recoverable.

Trade receivables consist of a large number of various types of customers, spread across geographical areas. Ongoing credit evaluation is performed on the financial condition of these trade receivables and where appropriate allowance for losses are provided. Further the Company, groups the trade receivables depending on type of customers and accordingly credit risk is determined.

(iii) Liquidity risk

Liquidity risk refers to the risk that the Company cannot meet its financial obligations. The objective of liquidity risk management is to maintain sufficient liquidity and ensure that funds are available for use as per requirements.

The Company has obtained fund and non-fund based working capital lines from various banks. Further, the Company has access to funds from debt markets through commercial paper programs, non-convertible debentures, senior notes and other debt instruments. The Company invests its surplus funds in bank fixed deposit and liquid and liquid plus schemes of mutual funds, which carry no/low mark to market risks. The Company has also invested 15% of the non-convertible debentures (taken/issued by the Company) falling due for repayment in the next 12 months in bank deposits, to meet the regulatory norms of liquidity requirements.

The Company also constantly monitors funding options available in the debt and capital markets with a view to maintaining financial flexibility.

The table below provides details regarding the contractual maturities of financial liabilities, including estimated interest payments as at March 31, 2018:

(iv) Derivative financial instruments and risk management

The Company has entered into a variety of foreign currency, interest rates and commodity forward contracts and options to manage its exposure to fluctuations in foreign exchange rates, interest rates and commodity price risk. The counterparty is generally a bank. These financial exposures are managed in accordance with the Company's risk management policies and procedures.

The Company also enters into interest rate swaps and interest rate currency swap agreements, mainly to manage exposure on its fixed rate or variable rate debt. The Company uses interest rate derivatives or currency swaps to hedge exposure to exchange rate fluctuations on principal and interest payments for borrowings denominated in foreign currencies.

Specific transactional risks include risks like liquidity and pricing risks, interest rate and exchange rate fluctuation risks, volatility risks, counterparty risks, settlement risks and gearing risks.

Fair value of derivative financial instruments are determined using valuation techniques based on information derived from observable market data.

The gain/loss due to fluctuation in foreign currency exchange rates on derivative contracts, recognized in the income statement was RS, 6.31 crores (loss) and RS,85.41 crores (loss) for the years ended March 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.

The gain/(loss) on commodity derivative contracts, recognized in the income statement was RS, 6.07 crores and RS, 9.06 crores for the years ended March 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.

4. Related-party transactions

The Company's related parties principally consist of subsidiaries, joint operations, associates and their subsidiaries, Tata Sons Ltd, subsidiaries and joint ventures of Tata Sons Ltd. The Company routinely enters into transactions with these related parties in the ordinary course of business. The Company enters into transactions for sale and purchase of products and services with its related parties.

iii) Effective April 30, 2018, the Company completed the merger of TML Drivelines Ltd (TML Drivelines) pursuant to a scheme of arrangement of merger. As TML Drivelines is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company, the merger has been accounted in accordance with "Pooling of Interest Method" laid down by Appendix C of Indian Accounting Standard 103 (Ind AS 103): (Business combinations of entities under common control), notified under the Companies Act, 2013.

Accordingly, all assets, liabilities and reserves of TML Drivelines have been recorded in the books of account of the Company at their existing carrying amounts and in the same form. To the extent that there are inter-company loans, advances, deposits, balances or other obligations as between TML Drivelines and the Company, have been eliminated. The difference, between the investments held by the Company and all assets, liabilities and reserves of TML Drivelines, has been debited to capital reserve. Comparative accounting period presented in the financial statements of the Company has been restated for the accounting impact of the merger, as stated above, as if the merger had occurred from the beginning of the comparative period in the financial statements i.e. April 1, 2016.

iv) The Company's certain assets related to defence business are classified as "Held for Sale'' as they meet the criteria laid out under ind AS 105.

v) The Company has a process whereby periodically all long term contracts (including derivative contracts) are assessed for material foreseeable losses. At the year end, the Company has reviewed and ensured that adequate provision as required under any law/accounting standards for material foreseeable losses on such long term contracts (including derivative contracts) has been made in the books of account.